Impact of sociodemographic factors on self-care practices among patients with type 2 diabetes in Lahore, Pakistan: an exploratory study

  • Zafar Iqbal Bhatti
  • Nusrat Manzoor
  • Nadeem Akhtar Korai
  • Imran Hameed Khaliq
Keywords: Self-care practices; Type 2 diabetes; Pakistan; Developing Country.


Background: Diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. Self-care practices play an important role in diabetes management and prevention of complications. Demographics, patient knowledge, socioeconomic status, and culture affect self-care practices and, consequently, disease outcomes. This study was conducted to assess self-care practices and determine associations with sociodemographic factors among patients with diabetes.
Participants and methods: A purposive sample of 382 patients with type 2 diabetes was assembled for this exploratory study. A semi-structured questionnaire was adapted to serve as a data-gathering tool. Information was collected regarding sociodemographic features, clinical characteristics, and self-care practices related to diabetes management. Continuous variables were analyzed using frequencies and percentages, and categorical variables were analyzed using chi-square tests.
Results: In total, 382 questionnaires were completed by 382 patients approached for study enrollment. No standard of diabetes self-care was adhered to by all patients. Indeed, only 28.5% of participants reported receiving a glycated hemoglobin test to inform diabetic treatment planning. Sociodemographic factors of age, sex, marital status, educational level, and monthly household income were associated with adherence to self-care practices among patients with diabetes.
Conclusion: Self‑care practices of patients with diabetes are influenced by many sociodemographic factors. Clinically, this information can be applied to design and target education and care planning for patients with type 2 diabetes. Providing special attention to patients with diabetes would allow for the provision of realistic recommendations regarding self-care.

Author Biographies

Zafar Iqbal Bhatti

Department of Pediatrics, Niazi Medical and Dental College, Sargodha, Pakistan,

Nusrat Manzoor

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Rai Medical College, Sargodha, Pakistan,

Nadeem Akhtar Korai

Pharmacology Institute, Pir Abdul Qadir Shah Jeelani Institute of Medical Sciences, Gambat, Pakistan

Imran Hameed Khaliq

Department of Public Health, University of Health Sciences Lahore, Khayaban-e-Jamia Punjab, Lahore-54600, Pakistan

How to Cite
Bhatti ZI, Manzoor N, Korai NA, Khaliq IH. Impact of sociodemographic factors on self-care practices among patients with type 2 diabetes in Lahore, Pakistan: an exploratory study. J Fatima Jinnah Med Univ [Internet]. 15Jan.2019 [cited 21Feb.2024];12(4). Available from: